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- The Ethics of Cultural Heritage
- The Book of Kells: An Immortal Cultural Heritage of the Gaels | Ancient Origins
Essential reading for urban policymakers and planners, tourism officials, tourism industry professionals and heritage planners and managers as well as undergraduates and postgraduates of Tourism, Urban Planning and Sustainability.
Includes introductory chapter written by Professor Harold Goodwin. Related pages: There are no related stories. Tags: heritage , responsible tourism , Sustainability , Sustainable Management , Textbook , Tourism , Tourism and Sustainability , Tourism studies , unesco , urban ,.
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Sustainable design implies responsibility and it implies a far-reaching respect for natural systems and resources, respect for people and cycle of life [ 4 ]. We must address, more fully, the underlying influence s of political, economic, and social issues comprising the cultural and spiritual background in which the desire to achieve sustainability in itself reflects such a significant value shift [ 21 ]. Sustainable design is a philosophical approach to design that seeks to maximize the quality of the built environment [ 4 ].
Vernacular architecture is the result of constrains on resource availability. Historically and without modern means, extraordinary enterprise produced architecture often of the most distinctive character and identity with only limited means available [ 22 ]. Vernacular architecture was built on inherently sustainable principles such as resource limitations imposed by economic or natural factors, yet succeeded in offering rational solutions to harsh climates and human need [ 23 ]. Elements of sustainable design are integral to every established form of vernacular architecture that are tried and proven solutions and have evolved over long periods of trial and error using local materials and technology emerging from ambient natural and cultural environment.beachdontwandtoka.ga
Sustainability and Vernacular Architecture: Rethinking What Identity Is
Vernacular architecture, in the Arab World, is a model for sustainability; it embodies different cultural values, which may be applied in the conceptual design of buildings today. These values are about the way of construction, which is responsive to the climate and suits the style of living, traditions, customs, social values, and culture of people; it is of a great sustainability potential Figure 3.
Accommodation to the ambient environment in vernacular architecture in the Arab World: solid walls, small openings, light finishing, courtyards, and wind catchers Source: Salman, Maha. Sustainability in architecture is an essential part to determine the identity of the architectural regionalism. All of this is contained in the sustainable criteria. Since our predecessors built sustainability, they did not need to enforce methods to reveal their society or place identity.
Identity was evident by being adhered to natural and social environment while society evolution through time. They built naturally in accordance with ambient environment and available resources and building materials; architecture embraced identity as it reflected its place, people, and culture. Tradition is portion of a society culture that transferred from one generation to another. Modernity does not necessarily mean liveliness, and change is not always for the better. In the Arab World, tradition is not a sole layer of heritage or culture; it is multilayered complex.
Recognizing tradition, as a product of society, requires a creative transformation of its cumulative values to next generations incorporating contemporary values that did not exist before [ 24 ]. One of the most fruitful developments in architectural thoughts to emerge in the last three decades is the changed perception of tradition and innovation and the growing realization of their interdependence. Making connections between existing but previously unrelated concepts is now understood to be as much a part of the creative process as having a free and lively imagination.
Nothing comes from nothing, it could be said, and tradition is both a potential launch pad for new ideas as well as a potential hindrance. The present task therefore is to better understand the reciprocal relations between the two, the way one complements, feeds into, stimulates, or hinders the other [ 9 ]. Many studies related vernacular architecture to natural and cultural environment of the location and region.
Predicatively, vernacular architecture offers the greatest potential for the development of a viable contemporary regionalism of consistent of high quality, capable of providing for many building types, both old and new. The potential diverse from the sheer richness of the heritage diversified over centuries of continuous development [ 9 ]. Modern life styles and advanced technology necessitate innovation; however, innovation and creativity must be deeply thought-out response to the change in circumstances and not just indulged to its own sake [ 14 ].
During architectural modernization in the Arab World starting s, many traditional buildings and heritage symbols were demolished for they were symbols of retardation and poverty. In paving the path for modernization in Arab cities, architectural heritage was abandoned and expertise of its construction lost. Many historic buildings suffered degradation and decay due to neglect and misuse by informal development and occupation by less fortunate people. In spite of the several demands by professionals, public, and suggested policies in s and s on the conservation of the traditional urban fabric of the Arab city, the traditional fabric was demolished, partially or completely in favor of Western building style as a trend to modernity.
This was one of the actions leading to loss of modern architecture identity in the Arab World. Rapid culture change enables one to identify core versus peripheral elements, those elements changing rapidly versus those remaining relatively constant.
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In an attempt to reveal identity in modern architecture in the Arab World, some architects, local and international, began to use elements, forms, and motives in particular, from vernacular architecture in the design of new buildings as a resemblance of the glory of the past. This approach became a facial mask; it was mainly evident on facades, openings, and architectural features such as arches, ornaments, and domes rather than the design concept or interior spaces Figure 4. New construction materials and technology such as concrete, steel, big glass opening, and air-conditioning became essential in most new buildings with total abandonment to local materials and ambient environment.
There were a few attempts to be inspired by the core design elements of vernacular architecture such as environmental solutions. However, there were several examples for regional architecture, designed by western and Arab architects trying to create an alternative to the prevailing international models [ 24 ] such as the work of Mohammed Makkiya, Hassan Fathy, Rasem Badran, Jafar Tukan, Rifat Chadirji, and Elie Azagury.
This awareness of the importance of vernacular architecture and tradition to enhance the built environment was not merely a nostalgic approach to the past; it was about endurance of local identity.
The Ethics of Cultural Heritage
Nevertheless, vernacular architecture features offer dramatic metaphors for regional forms of shelter, as well as rational responses to the harsh climate giving modernism a subtle but telling shove in direction of regionalism [ 9 ]. The multiplicity of sustainability trends has a great impact on the architectural identity and image of the Arab city.
Abdul Salam and Rihan defined three trends: the modern technology, the neotraditional, and the contemporary interpretation trend investigating reasons of their emergence, main features, and impacts on the architectural identity in Arab World [ 30 ]. Revitalization of architectural heritage and conservation cultural values in an environmentally sensitive manner requires detailed planning. It needs knowledge of materials and their interactions; knowledge of construction, craft techniques, skilled technicians, and available resources; and an ongoing commitment to the region identity through a sustainable approach.
Vernacular architecture has the essence of sustainability to be the link to more environment-respected buildings.
The Book of Kells: An Immortal Cultural Heritage of the Gaels | Ancient Origins
To ensure society continual survival, we need to adapt sustainable solutions for growth through respecting the environmental balance of nature. The reevaluation of vernacular architecture can offer an indefinite source to develop worthwhile ecological solutions for the built environment responding to society needs [ 31 ].
It is not just nostalgia that draws people to vernacular architecture. Much of what is valued in this architecture is its sustainability and response to the climate, natural setting, and locally available building materials. Their usefulness as model for new buildings only adds to their value.
In traditional societies and for centuries, people have lived in harmony with nature; they grew their food from surrounding region and developed their lifestyle in accordance with the available resources.
They have construct buildings using the local building materials available in the surrounding environment using their hands and developing building techniques affiliated with the physical characteristics of these materials. Traditional societies realized that their survival required them to sustain balance with lifecycle around them.
In other words, traditional societies were the real pioneers of sustainable development over time in the perspective of natural and built environment.
When defining architecture and the built environment, we have to think beyond places shaped by products and buildings; we need to consider how people modify the environment to accommodate to their needs, life, customs, and culture. This can be related to how sustainability is integrated with architecture.
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The architectural style, design, and construction materials of new buildings should reflect the cultural heritage of the locality or region and they should be environmentally and culturally sensitive and sustainable over the long term Figure 5. The architecture of the region, created at specific geographic locations at certain points in time by different individuals, reflects spirit of identity. There is an interactive relation between sustainability and identity. Likewise, some writers invoke cultural appropriation in a descriptive sense that leaves open whether a particular act of appropriation is wrongful Young 18 , whereas others employ the normative sense in order to pick out a particular kind of wrongful action Todd Disputes over cultural appropriation often have an important racial dimension, as in discussions surrounding the blues or hip hop Rudinow ; Taylor ; Taylor However, this need not be the case.
For instance, cultural appropriation whether wrongful or not could be thought to arise with respect to cultural groups that cut across multiple racialized groups, such as cultures surrounding disability, sexual orientation, gender identity, and religion, as well as arising within the diverse cultural groups that are circumscribed by a single racialized category Matthes a: A substantial catalyst for academic and popular discussion of cultural appropriation particularly in Canada was the recommendation in of an ad hoc committee of the Canada Council to take cultural appropriation into account in its decisions about the award of arts grants Rowell Concerns about government funding for work about culturally marginalized peoples made by non-group members are theoretically consistent with finding cultural appropriation unobjectionable if it succeeds in the marketplace of its own merits Rowell However, in more recent years, public and scholarly discussion has shifted beyond this narrower question about government funding towards more general discussion of whether cultural appropriation is wrongful.
One potential source of the wrongfulness of cultural appropriation is that it can be offensive to cultural group members. If this is the sole explanation of wrongful cultural appropriation, then the case is relatively weak: the prima facie reason for thinking that appropriation is wrong could be easily defeated by any number of morally significant countervailing factors. While there may be a general presumption against needlessly offending others, the fact that someone might be offended by most anything makes run-of-the-mill offense seem relatively easy to justify.
Nevertheless, even if cultural appropriation is profoundly offensive, and thus there is a prima facie reason for thinking it is wrongful, one might still think that it can be morally permissible all things considered because of other morally relevant features of the act, such as its social value, the value of freedom of expression, the time and place of the act, the extent to which it is tolerated by group members, and how reasonable the offense is Young Given the diversity of values and sensibilities, the potential for profound offense is substantial across many domains of social life.
While it will be debatable under what circumstances the aforementioned features defeat the prima facie reasons for thinking that profoundly offensive appropriation is wrong, the range of cases in which it is often thought that profound offense is outweighed by other values suggests that cultural appropriation will often be morally permissible, all things considered Young Indeed, one might think that cultural appropriation is an essential aspect of cultural development, and in fact a beneficial aspect of cultural creativity and exchange Young ; Rogers ; Heyd In contrast with or complementary to the explanation in terms of offense, one might also think that cultural appropriation can be wrongful because it can cause harm.